Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by collagen synthesis disruption, resulting in joint hyperlaxity, skin and vascular fragility, and bleeding diathesis. Patients with EDS are susceptible to spinal deformities, with scoliosis accounting for up to 23.4% of musculoskeletal abnormalities. Conservative management is often trialed initially; however, severe scoliosis can lead to significant sagittal imbalance and cardiopulmonary compromise. Surgical intervention for scoliosis correction in patients with EDS presents unique challenges because of tissue fragility and an increased risk of vascular and wound complications. This case report discusses a 20-year-old man with type II EDS and scoliosis, who experienced retroperitoneal compartment syndrome, significant left lower extremity weakness, and loss of sensation after scoliosis correction surgery. The report also provides an overview of the existing literature on scoliosis surgery outcomes in patients with EDS, highlighting the need for heightened vigilance and cautious surgical approaches.