Clinicians detect scoliosis worsening over time using frequent radiographs during growth. Arms must be elevated when capturing sagittal radiographs to visualize the vertebrae, and this may affect the sagittal angles. The aim was to systematically review the published evidence of the effect of arm positions used during radiography on spinal alignment parameters in healthy participants and those with AIS./r/nDesign was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022347494). A search strategy was run in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Healthy participants ≥ 10 years old and participants with AIS between 10 and 18 years old, with Cobb angles > 10° were included. Study quality was assessed using the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS). Meta-analysis was performed where possible./r/nOverall, 1332 abstracts and 33 full texts were screened. Data was extracted from 7 included studies. The most common positions were habitual standing, fists on clavicle, and active (arms raised unsupported). Kyphosis, lordosis, and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were most measured. Meta-analysis showed significantly decreased kyphosis (SMD = 0.78, 95%CI 0.48, 1.09) and increased lordosis (SMD = - 1.21, 95%CI – 1.58, – 0.85) when clavicle was compared to standing. Significant posterior shifts in SVA were shown in clavicle compared to standing (MD = 30.59 mm, 95%CI 23.91, 37.27) and active compared to clavicle (MD = - 2.01 mm, 95%CI – 3.38, – 0.64). Cobb angles and rotation were rarely studied (1 study)./r/nMeta-analysis evidence showed elevated arm positions modify sagittal measurements compared to standing. Most studies did not report on all relevant parameters. It is unclear which position best represent habitual standing.