Posterior olecranon fracture dislocations (POFDs) were considered posterior Monteggia lesions, which were less described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and complications of POFDs in adults. A systematic review was performed to identify all relevant studies on the POFDs in the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and MEDLINE databases. The methodological quality of the studies was scored using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). A total of 117 patients were identified in the nine studies selected. The high-energy injuries accounted for 42.7% of the included studies. The rates of concomitant coronoid process, radial head fractures, and lateral collateral ligament injury were 84.6% (99/117), 87.2% (102/117), and 5% (6/117), respectively. The procedure was performed with a dorsal mid longitudinal approach to reconstruct all injury components. The postoperative clinical scores included the Broberg/Morrey rating, with a mean rating of excellent or good at 66%, the mean DASH score was 20.6, and the mean ASES score was 83. The flexion and extension arc and forearm rotation arcs were 100° and 134°, respectively. Complications included arthrosis in 28.2% (33/117) of cases, fracture nonunion or delayed union in 9.4% (11/117) of cases, heterotopic ossification in 7% (8/117) of cases, and the re-operation rate was 16% (19/117). There was nearly no postoperative ulnohumeral instability. The main characteristics of POFDs were disruptions of the trochlear notch, including the olecranon and coronoid processes, and severe radial head fractures, while the lateral collateral ligament was spared. Although the POFDs had a low frequency of instability, the prognosis was relatively poor. The POFDs should be considered independently.