Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based exosomes have garnered attention as a viable therapeutic for post-traumatic cartilage injury and osteoarthritis of the knee; however, efforts for application have been limited due to issues with variable dosing and rapid clearance in vivo. Scaffolds laden with MSC-based exosomes have recently been investigated as a solution to these issues. Here, we review in vivo studies and highlight key strengths and potential clinical uses of exosome-scaffold therapeutics for treatment of post-traumatic cartilage injury and osteoarthritis. In vivo animal studies were gathered using keywords related to the topic, revealing 466 studies after removal of duplicate papers. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied for abstract screening and full-text review. Thirteen relevant studies were identified for analysis and extraction. Three predominant scaffold subtypes were identified: hydrogels, acellular extracellular matrices, and hyaluronic acid. Each scaffold-exosome design showcased unique properties with relation to gross findings, tissue histology, biomechanics, and gene expression. All designs demonstrated a reduction in inflammation and induction of tissue regeneration. The results of our review show that current exosome-scaffold therapeutics demonstrate the capability to halt and even reverse the course of post-traumatic cartilage injury and osteoarthritis. While this treatment modality shows incredible promise, future research should aim to characterize long-term biocompatibility and optimize scaffold designs for human treatment.