To systematically review the literature on the association between knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) and clinical outcome after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for medial knee osteoarthritis and summarize the KJLO cut-off value used when studying this association./r/nA systematic search was conducted in three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) on September 2022, updated on February 2023. Eligible studies describing postoperative KJLO in relation to clinical outcome after HTO for medial knee osteoarthritis were included. Nonpatient studies and conference abstracts without full-text were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed title, abstract and full-text based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The modified Downs and Black checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of each included study./r/nOf the seventeen studies included, three had good methodological quality, thirteen fair quality, and one had poor quality. Conflicting findings were shown on the associations between postoperative KJLO and patient-reported outcome, medial knee cartilage regeneration, and 10-year surgical survival in sixteen studies. Three good-quality studies found no significant differences in lateral knee cartilage degeneration between postoperative medial proximal tibial angle > 95° and < 95°. Joint line orientation angles by the tibial plateau of 4° and 6°, joint line orientation angle by the middle knee joint space of 5°, medial proximal tibial angles of 95° and 98°, and Mikulicz joint line angle of 94° were KJLO cut-off values used in the included studies./r/nBased on current evidence, the actual association between postoperative KJLO and clinical consequences after HTO for medial knee osteoarthritis cannot be ascertained. The clinical relevance of KJLO after HTO remains controversial./r/nIV.