A 2-day-old Cleveland Bay colt was referred to the Equine Emergency Service of the Farm Animal and Equine Veterinary Medical Center at North Carolina State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation of decreased nursing behaviour and right hindlimb lameness of 2 days’ duration. When assisted to stand, the foal was unable to extend either hindlimb or bear weight on the hindlimbs, the right patella was luxated laterally and unable to be reduced, and the foal assumed a crouched position. Stifle radiographs revealed minimal, heterogeneous, ill-defined ossification of both patellae. Due to the severity of the musculoskeletal defects, humane euthanasia was elected. Post-mortem examination identified a congenital malformation of both patella bones with failure of ossification and cardiac changes suggestive of right atrioventricular valve dysplasia. Histology of the patellae showed no evidence of osteoid deposition or ossification. To our knowledge, bilateral congenital patellar aplasia has not been previously described in foals.