Gene therapy uses genetic modification of cells to produce a therapeutic effect. Defective or missing genes can be repaired or replaced, or gene expression can be modified using a variety of technologies. Repair of defective genes can be achieved using specialized gene editing tools. Gene addition promotes gene expression by introducing synthetic copies of genes of interest (transgenes) into cells where they are transcribed and translated into therapeutic proteins. Protein production can also be modified using therapies that regulate gene expression. Gene therapy is currently prohibited in both human and equine athletes because of the potential to induce production of performance-enhancing proteins in the athlete’s body, also referred to as “gene doping.” Detection of gene doping is challenging and necessitates development of creative, novel analytical methods for doping control. Methods for detection of gene doping must be specific to and will vary depending on the type of gene therapy. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a systematic review of gene editing, gene therapy, and detection of gene doping in horses. Based on the published literature, gene therapy has been administered to horses in a large number of experimental studies and a smaller number of clinical cases. Detection of gene therapy is possible using a combination of PCR and sequencing technologies. This summary can provide a basis for discussion of appropriate and inappropriate uses for gene therapy in horses by the veterinary community and guide expansion of methods to detect inappropriate uses by the regulatory community.