As an uncommon but severe complication, medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may be significantly under-recognized. We aimed to determine whether MCL injury influences postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing TKA./r/nTwo independent reviewers searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from their inception to July 1, 2021. The main outcomes were postoperative function, and secondary outcomes included the incidences of revision and complications./r/nA total of 403 articles yielded 15 studies eligible for inclusion with 10 studies used for meta-analysis. This study found that there was a statistically significant difference in postoperative functional scores, range of motion (ROM), complications, and revision rates, with adverse outcomes occurring more commonly in patients with MCL injury./r/nThis meta-analysis highlights the complexity of MCL injury during TKA and shows the impact on postoperative function, joint mobility, complications, and revision. Surgeons need to prevent and put more emphasis on MCL injury during TKA.