Systematic Review

Complications and outcomes of trochleoplasty for patellofemoral instability: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 1000 trochleoplasties.

Trochleoplasty is an effective patellar stabilization procedure; however, it is associated with a risk of complications that cannot be ignored. Prior systematic reviews on this topic did not include more recent studies reporting important outcomes, particularly the long-term results of lateral elevation trochleoplasty. This led us to carry out a new meta-analysis of the various trochleoplasty procedures to specify: (1) the recurrence rate of patellofemoral dislocation; (2) the complication rates and; (3) the clinical outcomes./r/nStudies reporting complications and clinical outcomes of trochleoplasty, whether or not it was combined with other procedures for patellofemoral instability, were identified in the MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science databases and by searching the grey literature. The primary endpoint was the recurrence of patellofemoral dislocation while the secondary endpoints were objective patellofemoral instability without dislocation, stiffness, patellofemoral osteoarthritis, subsequent surgeries and various clinical outcome scores. The results were combined in a random-effects model (weighing factor: inverse variance) when the heterogeneity was less than 80%./r/nTwenty-eight studies were included: 5 featured lateral elevation trochleoplasty, 10 about the Dejour deepening trochleoplasty, 12 about the Bereiter deepening trochleoplasty and 1 about the recession wedge trochleoplasty. A total of 1000 trochleoplasty procedures were done in 890 patients who had a follow-up of 1 to 25 years. There were 24 cases of recurrent dislocation (24/994 [2.4%]; this outcome was not reported for 6 trochleoplasties). The Dejour deepening trochleoplasty was the most effective with only 1 recurrence in 349 knees (0.28%). For the other complications, residual patellar instability without dislocation occurred in 82 of 754 knees (8% [95% CI: 3-14%]), patellofemoral osteoarthritis in 117 of 431 knees (27%), stiffness in 59 of 642 knees (7% [95% CI: 3-12%]) and the need for subsequent surgery in 151 of 904 knees (17%)./r/nThis study found a low recurrence rate for patellofemoral dislocation and residual instability. The incidence of stiffness, patellofemoral osteoarthritis and subsequent surgery remains high but differs greatly between studies. This meta-analysis showed a very large disparity between studies for most complications, which justifies the need for randomized and comparative studies to establish the role of trochleoplasty procedures in the treatment algorithm for patellar instability./r/nIV; systematic review and meta-analysis.