Combined simple elbow dislocation and forearm joint injuries. A systematic review of the literature with injury patterns and current treatment rationale.
Recent studies have allowed a great improvement in understanding elbow and forearm traumatic injuries. Simple elbow dislocations combined with forearm injuries have been occasionally reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to detect the possible patterns of simple elbow dislocations and forearm fracture-dislocations, providing a classification scheme to guide surgical treatment./r/nPubMed search was performed to find combination of simple elbow dislocation and forearm joint injury, between 2000 and 2020, including clinical studies and case report. All articles related to pediatric patient or with complex elbow dislocation were excluded. After identification, articles were analyzed for the description of injury patterns reported according to locker-based classification system of forearm joint injuries./r/nFinally, 15 articles were included. Most of the patients sustained high-energy trauma. According to locker-based classification system, simple elbow dislocation was combined with: MRUJ and DRUJ Galeazzi injury (2IR.3), PRUJ and MRUJ injury (1.2I), PRUJ and MRUJ injury with radial shaft fracture (1.2IR), PRUJ and MRUJ injury with ulnar shaft fracture (1.2 IU), PRUJ and MRUJ injury with radial and ulnar shaft fracture (1.2IRU), PRUJ MRUJ DRUJ Essex-Lopresti injury (1.2I.3), and PRUJ MRUJ DRUJ injury with radial shaft fracture (1.2IR.3). Thirteen out of 15 patients undergo surgical treatment. Clinical results were overall favorable./r/nSimple elbow dislocation combined with forearm joint injury is an uncommon traumatic pattern usually secondary to high-energy trauma. A thorough knowledge of elbow and forearm biomechanics, and classification of anatomical lesion is mandatory for a successful treatment.