Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease, and treatment is required for the prevention of low bone mass, deterioration of microstructural bone tissue, and fragility fractures. Osteoporosis therapy includes calcium, vitamin D, and drugs with antiresorptive or anabolic action on the bone. Therapy for osteoporosis does not include taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), but pain associated with osteoporotic fractures can be treated by taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Recently, polysaccharides extracted from medicinal herbs and edible substances (PsMHES) have attracted attention on account of their safety and promising anti-osteoporosis effects, whereas a systematic review about their potential in anti-osteoporosis is vacant to date. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress of PsMHES with anti-osteoporosis activities, looking to introduce the advances in the various pharmacological mechanisms and targets involved in the anti-osteoporosis effects, extraction methods, main mechanism involved in Wnt/[Formula: see text]-catenin pathways and RANKL (Receptor Activator for NF[Formula: see text]B ligand or TNFSF25) pathways, and Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR) analysis of PsMHES. Typical herbs like and used for the treatment of osteoporosis are introduced; their traditional uses in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are discussed in this paper as well. This review will help to the recognition of the value of PsMHES in anti-osteoporosis and provide guidance for the research and development of new anti-osteoporosis agents in clinic.